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Reduced seated valves are broken down into three sections: the reducer
(contraction) section, the valve section, and the enlarger section.
A K value is determined for each section in relation to the size of the
valve in the pipeline.
The total K value for the valve consists of K values for the reducer, the valve
section, and the enlarger. Since the K value for the valve section is dependent
on the valve seat diameter instead of the pipeline diameter, it must be adjusted
by a correction factor to determine the correct K value for the diameter of the
The valve correction factor is the ratio of valve seat diameter divided by
pipeline diameter (often called beta) raised to the fourth power.